This is incorporated into the preamble to the Treaty on European Union, which refers to ‘drawing inspiration from the cultural, religious and humanist inheritance of Europe’ and ‘confirming [the] attachment to the principles of liberty, democracy and respect for human rights’. 17–50). The EU works closely with two centres for research on languages, the European Centre for Modern Languages of the Council of Europe (ECML) and the European Research Centre on Multilingualism and Language Learning (Mercator). New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston, Fishman, Joshua A., 1977, Comparative study of language planning: Introducing a survey, in Rubin, Jernudd, Das Gupta, Fishman and Ferguson (eds. In 2013, the European Parliament adopted a resolution on ‘endangered European languages and linguistic diversity in the European Union’[10], calling on the Member States to be more attentive to endangered European languages and to commit to the protection and promotion of the diversity of the Union’s linguistic and cultural heritage. This ties in with the governing body’s obligations to consult with the members of the community in which the school is situated, just like any other democratically elected government would be required to do. The Hague: Mouton, Haugen, Einar, 1987, Blessings of Babel: bilingualism and language planning: problems and pleasures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, de Swaan, Abram, 1999, The language constellation of the European Union. 21–30). 138–49). 531–45). Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters Ltd. ‘Can threatened languages be saved?’, Landau, Jacob, and Kellner-Heinkele, Barbara, 2001, Politics of language in the Ex-Soviet Muslim states: Azerbaijan, Usbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. London: Allen Lane, Language and political change in modern Egypt, Sibayan, Bonifacio, 1974, Language policy, language engineering and literacy in the Philippines, in Fishman (ed. ), 2001, Concise encyclopedia of language and religion. G-0500–157.04/96 GIF). 10 - Monolingual polities with recognized linguistic minorities, 11 - Partitioning language space – two, three, many, Book DOI: and SOURCES Basimolodi, Outlule Mother. Juvenes Translatores. Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press, Pandit, Prabodh B., 1975, The Linguistic Survey of India – perspectives on language use, in Sirarpi Ohannessian, Charles A. Ferguson and Edgar C. Polomé (eds. In this introduction, Bernard Spolsky explores many debates at the forefront of language policy: ideas of correctness and bad language; bilingualism and multilingualism; language death and efforts to preserve endangered languages; language choice as a human and civil right; and language education policy. On 28 March 2019, Parliament adopted a legislative resolution on the proposal for the Creative Europe programme 2021-2027[8]. 377–400, News from China: minority languages in perspective, The modernization of the Chinese language, First language literacy: literacy education in a multilingual Philippine society, Young, Robert W., 1977, Written Navajo: a brief history, in Fishman (ed. 69–86). ), Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Linguistics (pp. 53–80). ), Concise encyclopedia of educational linguistics (pp. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply. In its contribution to the Social Summit held on 17 November 2017 in Gothenburg, the Commission set out the idea of a ‘European Education Area’ where by 2025, ‘in addition to one’s mother tongue, speaking two other languages has become the norm’ (COM(2017)0673). ), Language planning: current issues and research (pp. The Hague and Paris: Mouton. They have also been the subject of formal public comment following their publication on 9 May 1997 (Government Notice No. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. London and New York: Routledge, Phillipson, Robert, 1992, Linguistic imperialism. Alsaif, Reema Ali S. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics, Problems and processes in US foreign Language planning, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, Review of Joshua A. Fishman. 98–115, Regional, national and official languages in Belgium, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, Azurmendi, Maria-Josi, Bachoc, Erramun, and Zabaleta, Francisca, 2001, Reversing language shift: the case of Basque, in Fishman (ed. ), Language ideologies: practice and theory (pp. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, McLean, Daryl, and McCormick, Kay, 1996, English in South Africa 1940–1996, in Fishman, Rubal-Lopez and Conrad (eds. The Hague: Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. ), The handbook of sociolinguistics (pp. ), pp. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, OSCE developments and linguistic minorities, A sociolinguistic view of linguistic taboo in Chinese, Hornberger, Nancy H., 1999, Language education policy – Latin America, in Bernard Spolsky (ed. ), pp. 1–3, Sawyer, John F. A., and Simpson, J. M. Y. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities, Eurydice, 2000, The position of foreign language in European education systems 1999/2000, from, Macaulay's Minute revisited: colonial language policy in nineteenth-century India, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, Ferguson, Charles A., 1968, St. Stefan of Perm and applied linguistics, in Fishman, Ferguson and Das Gupta (eds. In the wake of the summit held in Gothenburg in 2017, the proposal aims at enhancing the learning of languages, in particular through widened use of online tools. ), Concise encyclopedia of sociolinguistics (pp. ), 1963, Language in Africa. New York: Harper and Row, Chumbow, Beban Sammy, and Bobda, Augustin Simo, 1996, The life-cycle of post-imperial English in Cameroon, in Fishman, Rubal-Lopez and Conrad (eds. 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